虫行天下--Lohu的点点滴滴

Linux Ftp的安装与配置


|2|1


.vsftpd说明:

LINUX下实现FTP服务的软件很多,最常见的有vsftpd,Wu-ftpd和Proftp等.Red Hat Enterprise Linux中默认安装的是vsftpd.

访问FTP服务器时需要经过验证,只有经过了FTP服务器的相关验证,用户才能访问和传输文件.vsftpd提供了3种ftp登录形式:

 (1)anonymous(匿名帐号)

使用anonymous是应用广泛的一种FTP服务器.如果用户在FTP服务器上没有帐号,那么用户可以以anonymous为用户名,以自己的电子邮件地址为密码进行登录.当匿名用户登录FTP服务器后,其登录目录为匿名FTP服务器的根目录/var/ftp.为了减轻FTP服务器的负载,一般情况下,应关闭匿名帐号的上传功能.

  (2)real(真实帐号)

real也称为本地帐号,就是以真实的用户名和密码进行登录,但前提条件是用户在FTP服务器上拥有自己的帐号.用真实帐号登录后,其登录的目录为用户自己的目录,该目录在系统建立帐号时系统就自动创建.

 (3)guest(虚拟帐号)

如果用户在FTP服务器上拥有帐号,但此帐号只能用于文件传输服务,那么该帐号就是guest,guest是真实帐号的一种形式,它们的不同之处在于,geust登录FTP服务器后,不能访问除宿主目录以外的内容.

二.vsftpd安装

1.安装vsftpd

输入命令
yum install vsftpd

2.启动/重启/关闭vsftpd服务器

输入命令
[root@localhost ftp]# /sbin/service vsftpd restart
Shutting down vsftpd: [ OK ]
Starting vsftpd for vsftpd: [ OK ]

OK表示重启成功了.
启动和关闭分别把restart改为start/stop即可.如果是源码安装的,到安装文件夹下找到start.sh和shutdown.sh文件,执行它们就可以了.

三.vsftpd配置

其相关配置文件有/etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf,  /etc/vsftpd.ftpusers,  /etc/vsftpd.user_list,在配置FTP服务器时,主要是修改这些文件中的相关语句.

1.vsftpd.conf文件说明

# Example config file /etc/vsftpd/vsftpd.conf

#

# The default compiled in settings are fairly paranoid. This sample file

# loosens things up a bit, to make the ftp daemon more usable.

# Please see vsftpd.conf.5 for all compiled in defaults.

#

# READ THIS: This example file is NOT an exhaustive list of vsftpd options.

# Please read the vsftpd.conf.5 manual page to get a full idea of vsftpd’s

# capabilities.

#

# Allow anonymous FTP? (Beware – allowed by default if you comment this out).

anonymous_enable=YES  //是否允许anonymous登录FTP服务器,默认是允许的.

#

# Uncomment this to allow local users to log in.

local_enable=YES //是否允许本地用户登录FTP服务器,默认是允许

#

# Uncomment this to enable any form of FTP write command.

write_enable=YES  //是否允许用户具有在FTP服务器文件中执行写的权限,默认是允许

#

# Default umask for local users is 077. You may wish to change this to 022,

# if your users expect that (022 is used by most other ftpd’s)

local_umask=022 //设置本地用户的文件生成掩码为022,默认是077

#

# Uncomment this to allow the anonymous FTP user to upload files. This only

# has an effect if the above global write enable is activated. Also, you will

# obviously need to create a directory writable by the FTP user.

#anon_upload_enable=YES

#

# Uncomment this if you want the anonymous FTP user to be able to create

# new directories.

#anon_mkdir_write_enable=YES  //是否允许匿名账户在FTP服务器中创建目录

#

# Activate directory messages – messages given to remote users when they

# go into a certain directory.

dirmessage_enable=YES //激活目录信息,当远程用户更改目录时,将出现提示信息

#

# Activate logging of uploads/downloads.

xferlog_enable=YES  //启用上传和下载日志功能

#

# Make sure PORT transfer connections originate from port 20 (ftp-data).

connect_from_port_20=YES   //启用FTP数据端口的连接请求

#

# If you want, you can arrange for uploaded anonymous files to be owned by

# a different user. Note! Using “root” for uploaded files is not

# recommended!

#chown_uploads=YES

#chown_username=whoever

#

# You may override where the log file goes if you like. The default is shown

# below.

#xferlog_file=/var/log/vsftpd.log  //设置日志文件的文件名和存储路径,这是默认的

#

# If you want, you can have your log file in standard ftpd xferlog format

xferlog_std_format=YES//是否使用标准的ftpd xferlog日志文件格式

#

# You may change the default value for timing out an idle session.

#idle_session_timeout=600  //设置空闲的用户会话中断时间,默认是10分钟

#

# You may change the default value for timing out a data connection.

#data_connection_timeout=120//设置数据连接超时时间,默认是120秒.

#

# It is recommended that you define on your system a unique user which the

# ftp server can use as a totally isolated and unprivileged user.

#nopriv_user=ftpsecure

#

# Enable this and the server will recognise asynchronous ABOR requests. Not

# recommended for security (the code is non-trivial). Not enabling it,

# however, may confuse older FTP clients.

#async_abor_enable=YES

#

# By default the server will pretend to allow ASCII mode but in fact ignore

# the request. Turn on the below options to have the server actually do ASCII

# mangling on files when in ASCII mode.

# Beware that turning on ascii_download_enable enables malicious remote parties

# to consume your I/O resources, by issuing the command “SIZE /big/file” in

# ASCII mode.

# These ASCII options are split into upload and download because you may wish

# to enable ASCII uploads (to prevent uploaded scripts etc. from breaking),

# without the DoS risk of SIZE and ASCII downloads. ASCII mangling should be

# on the client anyway..

#ascii_upload_enable=YES

#ascii_download_enable=YES //是否允许使用ASCII格式来上传和下载文件

#

# You may fully customise the login banner string:

#ftpd_banner=Welcome to blah FTP service.//在FTP服务器中设置欢迎登录的信息.

#

# You may specify a file of disallowed anonymous e-mail addresses. Apparently

# useful for combatting certain DoS attacks.

#deny_email_enable=YES

# (default follows)

#banned_email_file=/etc/vsftpd.banned_emails

#

# You may specify an explicit list of local users to chroot() to their home

# directory. If chroot_local_user is YES, then this list becomes a list of

# users to NOT chroot().

#chroot_list_enable=YES //如果希望用户登录后不能切换到自己目录以外的其它目录,需要设置该项,如果设置chroot_list_enable=YES,那么只允许/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list中列出的用户具有该功能.如果希望所有的本地用户都执行者chroot,可以增加一行:chroot_local_user=YES

# (default follows)

#chroot_list_file=/etc/vsftpd.chroot_list

#

# You may activate the “-R” option to the builtin ls. This is disabled by

# default to avoid remote users being able to cause excessive I/O on large

# sites. However, some broken FTP clients such as “ncftp” and “mirror” assume

# the presence of the “-R” option, so there is a strong case for enabling it.

#ls_recurse_enable=YES

pam_service_name=vsftpd  //设置PAM认证服务的配置文件名称,该文件存放在/etc/pam.d/目录下.

userlist_enable=YES //用户列表中的用户是否允许登录FTP服务器,默认是不允许

#enable for standalone mode

listen=YES  //使vsftpd 处于独立启动模式

tcp_wrappers=YES  //使用tcp_wrqppers作为主机访问控制方式

2.vsftpd.ftpusers文件说明

这个文件是用来记录”不允许”登录到FTP服务器的用户,通常是一些系统默认的用户.

下面是该文件中默认的不允许登录的名单:

# Users that are not allowed to login via ftp

root //默认情况下,root和它以下的用户是不允许登录FTP服务器的.可以将不允许登录的用户添加到这里来.但切记每个用户都要单独占用一行.

bin

daemon

adm

lp

sync

shutdown

halt

mail

news

uucp

operator

games

nobody

3.vsftpd.user_list文件说明

其实它的内容跟上面那个文件内容一样,只是在系统对文件vsftpd.conf 进行检测时,会检测到”userlist_deny=YES”,因此这个文件必须存在.下面是这个文件的内容.

# vsftpd userlist

# If userlist_deny=NO, only allow users in this file

# If userlist_deny=YES (default), never allow users in this file, and

# do not even prompt for a password.

# Note that the default vsftpd pam config also checks /etc/vsftpd.ftpusers

# for users that are denied.

root

bin

daemon

adm

lp

sync

shutdown

halt

mail

news

uucp

operator

games

nobody

 



Lohu
虫行天下 - Lohu的点点滴滴

无觅相关文章插件,快速提升流量